K.A. Hobson et al.,2013. Avian Conservation and Ecology 8(2): 5.
“Annual loss of nests by industrial (nonwoodlot) forest harvesting in Canada was estimated using two avian point-count data sources… Accounting for uncertainty in the proportion of harvest occurring during the breeding season and in avian nesting densities, our estimate ranges from 616 thousand to 2.09 million nests…” Table 4 lists Estimated number of nests destroyed by forestry operations annually by province. Other tables also list stats by provinces. The study was part of a larger study on Quantifying Human-related Bird Mortality in Canada.
View also Environmentalists worried about potential forestry-related nest loss in the Chronicle Herald, Jan 3, 2017.
Breeding Bird Communities in a Hardwood Forest Succession in Nova Scotia Canada
Morgan, K., and B. Freedman. 1985. Canadian Field-Naturalist 100(4): 506-519.
“The response of breeding birds to hardwood forest disturbance and regrowth was examined using a chronosequence of 23 stands aged from 1 to 74 years. The avifauna of young, clearcut stands (12 years old) was distinct in both species and density from mature stands (20 years old). The most important species of young stands were Chestnut-sided Warbler, Common Yellowthroat, Northern Junco, and White-throated Sparrow, while older stands were dominated by Least Flycatcher, Hermit Thrust, Red-eyed Vireo, Northern Parula, Black-throated Green Warbler, American Redstart, and Ovenbird. As clearcut stands developed and began structurally to resemble a forest, especially with the establishment of a tall, relatively dense shrub canopy, species of birds more typically associated with closed stands began to invade. Bird species density, diversity, and richness levelled off in the transitional stage between recent clearcuts and young forests, and at this stage there was a mixture of open and closed canopy species. With further succession, species typical of young stands were eliminated from the avifauna. The overall effects of timber harvesting upon the avifauna of this hardwood forest were not severe, and were of limited duration.”
Selected studies of forestry and bird communities in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick
Bill Freedman and Greg Johnson 1999. Society of Canadian Ornithologists Special Publication No. L 1999. “Forestry practices can cause intense disturbances, which result in dramatic changes in the habitats available to support all elements of biodiversity, including birds. Many species of birds require mature and older forests as habitat for breeding, migratory movements, or wintering; some also use habitats occurring during earlier stages of forest succession, including those created through such forestry unities as elearoutting. We summarise results of several
research protects which have examined the effects of various harvesting systems, plantation establishment, and silviculturel herbicide spraying in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.
Forestry practices and biodiversity, with particular reference to the Maritime Provinces of eastern Canada
Bill Freedman et al., Environmental Reviews, 1994, 2(1): 33-77
Comprehensive, informative; species, community and guilds associated with forests of different ages are described; conservation challenges addressed. Full Paper (PDF)
Guidelines for Managing Canada Warbler Habitat in the Atlantic Northern Forest of Canada
Alana Westwood et al. 2017. for the Boreal Avian Modelling Project. Comprehensive. There is a 2 page Field Guide as well.
Forests succession, deadwood
A couple of lists of birds observed or compiled by the late Bill Freedman and associates illustrate how forest harvesting can have strong effects on bird communities by their effects on successional habitats and dead wood. (Page on this website)
Conservation of three forest landbird species at risk: Characterizing and modelling habitat at multiple scales to guide management planning
Alana Westwood, PhD thesis, Dalhousie University 2016. “To effectively conserve species at risk (SAR), it is important to understand their ecology at multiple scales, including stand-level habitat associations and landscape-level distribution. The Rusty Blackbird (Euphagus carolinus), Olive-Sided Flycatcher (Contopus cooperi), and Canada Warbler (Cardellina canadensis) are listed landbird species at risk (SAR) that breed in wet forest habitat in Canada’s Maritimes. To characterize their habitat for stand-scale conservation, I surveyed vegetation cover and structure at 99 known locations in the Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve…When comparing predicted population sizes to regional population estimates, national parks supported habitat for only 3-4% of Canada Warblers and 1-2% of Olive-sided Flycatchers. Thus it is highly unlikely that existing national parks alone are able to maintain viable regional populations. To help prevent extirpation of these species, forestry prescriptions need to be adjusted to conserve habitat, and key locations for management should be identified at a regional scale.” Also view the ongoing project: Landbird Species at Risk in Forested Wetlands
Bird Conservation Strategy for Bird Conservation Region 14 and Marine Biogeographic Units 11 and 12 in Nova Scotia: Atlantic Northern Forest, Scotian Shelf and Bay of Fundy, and Gulf of St. Lawrence
– Abridged Version – October 2013 Government of Canada
The landscape of Nova Scotia is a combination of mountainous terrain, lowland plains and coastal landforms typical of the Atlantic Northern Forest. Northern temperate forests dominate a large portion of Nova Scotia, and the most predominant forest types include spruce-fir conifer followed by mixed deciduous-coniferous forests. None of the resource-extraction industries in Nova Scotia are particularly dominant in terms of their impact on birds: forestry and agriculture are equally important, followed by commercial fisheries, electrical generation and marine transportation.
There are 62 priority bird species on land and 32 priority bird species in marine habitats. Wetlands are used by the greatest number of priority bird species (45%), while 35% use forests and 34% use cultivated and managed areas. There is a variety of current and potential threats to the region’s avifauna.Table 1 lists the Priority Bird Species.
Bird Migration Forecasts
Cornell Lab of Ornithology. “While only truly written for the US, the “Upper Midwest and Northeast” can be read to give some information as to our future. Overall, one could add, say, two-three weeks and have some useful pointers. Also, the one-week wind direction & precip maps do cover the Maritimes and are definitely useful if you care for that sort of predictive weather info. Don’t overlook the four drop-down files under “Species on the Move”. These really remind you of the sequence of all species, based on hard eBird data.” – Rick Whitman on NatureNS listserv Mar 12, 2017
Second Atlas of Breeding Birds of the Maritimes Provinces
“This Atlas is the single most comprehensive, up-to-date information source on the status of Maritimes breeding birds. More than 260,000 records of 222 species are included in the database, including more than 8,700 records of 17 species at risk. Produced as a beautifully-illustrated hard-cover book, the Atlas is complemented by a comprehensive website where maps, results and much else are accessible online.” (Published 2016). The Introductory chapters are highly informative, available in Part 1 and Part 2. Data and descriptive information for all species are given as links to PDFs under the Table of Contents.
Nova Scotia Bird Society
“The Nova Scotia Bird Society has been a focus for birders in this province for 60 years. Serving about 600 members, we have much to offer anyone interested in wild birds. Browse through our web site for a sample of what we do”. Many resources offered in the Library section. Regular meetings with talks, field trips, sessions for beginners and more advanced birders.
MTRI Forest Bird Monitoring
MTRI (Mersey Tobeatic Research Institute) is involved with many bird monitoring projects, including: Caledonia Christmas Bird Count, Noctural Owl Survey; Landbird Species at Risk. Some results are summarized. Opportunities for volunteering.
Bird Studies Canada
“Bird Studies Canada’s mission is to conserve wild birds of Canada through sound science, on-the-ground actions, innovative partnerships, public engagement, and science-based advocacy.” It sponsors a number of citizen science projects.Search for “Nova Scotia” on the website for a variety of docs dealing with NS, e.g. A Loonie For Your Thoughts! Learning About Nova Scotia’s Lakes and Loons; Nova Scotia Nocturnal Owl Survey: Guide for Volunteers.
Natural History of Nova Scotia: Birds (PDF) Brief overview
T11.1 Factors Influencing Birds (Page 226), T11.2 Forest and Edge-habitat Birds (Page 227),
T11.3 Open-habitat Birds (Page 231),T11.4 Birds of Prey (Page 233), T11.5 Freshwater Wetland Birds and Waterfowl (Page 236), T11.6 Shorebirds and Other Birds of Coastal Wetlands (Page 241), T11.7 Seabirds and Birds of Marine Habitats (Page 246)
New Brunswick forestry practices impact bird populations, says researcher
CBC Dec 18, 2016 “Even with the changes that have occurred in the landscape, Villard said “it is never too late” to help birds in the province. He noted there are still plenty of forests that haven’t been harvested and could be maintained.” He sees the issue as a political one and encourages the public to start asking questions about how forests are managed. Most of it is directly applicable to NS.
Hans Toom Blog
His seasonal blog posts are illustrated with some of the best bird photography anywhere.
Nova Scotia’s Clearcut Refugees
Post on this website (Mar 12, 2017). “A strong argument for the inhumanity of clear cutting is that we put at risk all animals that are forced into refugee status.” – Soren Bondrup-Nielsen
Crossland: federal Migratory Birds Convention Act ignored as habitat is cut for chips
Post on this website (July 22, 2017). “The federal Migratory Birds Convention Act is supposed to protect nests and nest habitat, but forest harvests continue unabated during the nesting season, with thousands of nests destroyed every spring. Naturalists and scientists speak of the declining chorus of songbirds compared to the past. And how is this practice allowed on our Crown lands, where the very best forest practices supposedly prevail?”
The Role of Riparian Buffers in Forest Bird Conservation
By C. Staicer et al. Final Report for Nova Scotia Habitat Conservation Fund 2005-2006 “Preliminary results are consistent with the two hypotheses of interest: (1) buffers currently on the landscape may not be maintaining several birds of conservation concern, and (2) riparian forest has greater conservation value to certain species than does upland habitat. Another field season is required to obtain a larger data set for more accurate calculation of bird densities and to determine which species are successfully breeding in buffers.”