Natural History

Natural history is the observation and description of the life around us and the explanation of how it came to be.

View also submenu items including Forest Vegetation, Conservation, NSDNR Old Forest Policy, and Conservation Links, Birds, Amphibians, Reps & Mammals, Sounds & Sights

The Acadian Forest, the story so far
Sounds and views of Acadian forest, and of recent clearcuts by Mark Brennan. Also see (listen to) Mark’s Wild Earth Voices which include four albums in forest wilderness settings in Nova Scotia.

A field guide to forest biodiversity stewardship
Peter Neily and Glen J. Parsons. NSDNR 2017. The 126 page guidebook contains a lot of useful information primarily at “the forest stand level”, encourages managers to retain legacy trees, patches of old growth etc. and for some specific situations or wildlife such as as nesting colonies of great blue heron offers very specific instructions on how to protect them. The Eco Notes in each section provide interesting, relevant and practical information about forest biodiversity that will be welcomed all people who have an active interest in our forests regardless of whether they actually manage any forest.

Natural History of forested lands in Kings Co., Nova Scotia
Post Jan 18, 2018 with a link to the Chapter on Forested Lands in the Natural History of Kings County. This 31 page chapter provides an overview of the natural history of the forests of Kings Co; it applies to most of NS.

Natural History of Nova Scotia: H6 INTRODUCTION TO FORESTS
A good overview.

Old Growth Forests
A Fact Sheet on the State of Old Growth Forests in Nova Scotia by Nova Scotia Nature Trust, Spring 2000

“Old Growth” Forests Defined by Key Ecological Characteristics
by Joe Rankin. 2016 in Forest for Maine’s Future. Brief description/discussion.

Becoming a naturalist
On what a naturalist does and how one learns natural history with special reference to Nova Scotia. David P. in The Halifax Field Naturalist No 160 (Fall, 2015)

Nova Scotia Bird News by Date
A page on the American Birding Association website recording posts to a listserv, with often 10 or more posts daily. It’s not restricted to birds and includes many natural history observations as they unfold seasonally in Nova Scotia. Every now and then, there are informative discussions of current issues relating to natural history and conservation.

MTRI’s Forest Program
MTRI is the Mersey Tibeatic Research Institute whose mandate is “to promote sustainable use of natural resources and biodiversity conservation in the Southwest Nova Biosphere Reserve and beyond through research, education, and the operation of a field station”. This set of web pages describes their work and volunteer programs and provides links to relevant resources. View also Old Forest Conservation Science Conference

Wildland Writers: NaturallyNS
Links to articles by the Wildland Writers published in the Chronicle Herald under the column Naturally Nova Scotia, many of which are about life in Nova Scotia forests.

ns wild flora societyLinks: Conservation/Species at Risk
Five pages of links on the website of the NS Wild Flora Society under the headings Nova Scotia, Federal/Other Atlantic Provinces/U.S., International, Invasive Species, Naturalization/Native Plant Gardening.

Halifax Field Naturalist Archived Newsletters
The Halifax Field Naturalist has been published 4x/year since 1975. Past issues provide for some good browsing and you can search the archives, e.g. for spruce budworm, longhorn beetle. Included are descriptions of invited talks, field trips that cover the province and topical reports of the times.

Celebrating Yellow Birch
Post on this website. “Yellow birch is chuncky, slow growing, a tree of damp, shady ravines, of swamps and rocky hillsides. It grows slow and dies old. For company it prefers other shade lovers like sugar maple, hemlock. Red spruce and beech – that club of elites we call the Acadian forest. Its bark is so rough and gnarly, especially on older trees, people hardly know it’s a birch.” – Gary Saunders in My Life with Trees, Gaspereau Press, 2015

Nova Scotia Environmental Assessments
The published EAs are an invaluable source of information on the occurrence of species and habitats in different parts of the province. The site provides access to EAs going back to the year 2000.

Dr. Elena Ponomarenko shows participants in the MTRI Old Forest Conference (Oct 19-21, 2016) how to read the forest floor to uncover past disturbances and forest types

Dr. Elena Ponomarenko shows participants in the MTRI Old Forest Conference (Oct 19-21, 2016) how to read the forest floor to uncover past disturbances and forest types

Pit and Mound Topography

Patterns of pedoturbation by tree uprooting in forest soils
Bobrovsky M.V., Loyko S.V. Russian Journal of Ecosystem Ecology Vol. 1 (1). 2016. A descriptive article with photos. It references classic research by E.V. Ponomarenko who has been working in Nova Scotia recently.

Woodlands shaped by past Hurricanes
By David Dwyer, Forester NSDNR. 1979
“Many of our forest stands in Nova Scotia are a result of past hurricanes. Mounds on the forest floor -the result of uprooted trees – indicate this. The age of trees growing on these mounds give a good indication of when the storm occurred. These stand ages compare well with the written records of past storms…”

Acadian Forest Love Affair
by David P (Jan 26, 2018). The physical intimacy of yellow birch and hemlock often observed on mounds in old forests is more than a coincidence.

Salvaging has minimal impacts on vegetation regeneration 10 years after severe windthrow
by AR taylor et al, Forest Ecology and Management Volume 406, 15 December 2017, Pages 19-27. “The study area was located approximately 50 km east of Halifax”. Includes discussion of pit and mound topography, disturbance regimes etc.


Night Gliders
Article by Bob Bancroft about flying squirrels. In Saltscapes magazine

EDMUND S. TELFER: Continuing Environmental Change -An Example from Nova Scotia
Canadian Field-Naturalist 118(1): 39-44.
ABSTRACT: Information from personal experience, from community elders and published literature served as a basis for evaluating environmental changes in the District of North Queens and adjacent areas of Southwestern Nova Scotia over the past century. Major events included disappearance of the Caribou (Rangifer tarandus), the arrival of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus), the severe reduction of Canada Yew (Taxus canadensis), disappearance of Lynx (Lynx canadensis), a major dieoff of Striped Skunks (Mephitis mephitis), decline of American Beech (Fagus grandifolia), the loss of mature birch (Betula spp.), the severe reduction of Moose (Alces alces), the arrival of the American Dog Tick (Dermacentor variabilis) and Coyotes (Canis latrans), and the restoration of Beaver (Castor canadensis). The proximate cause of many of those changes were plant and animal disease, while the ultimate causes were naturally occurring animal range expansion and human impacts. The warming of the climate over the past 150 years probably played a role. The nature and timing of the events could not have been predicted.

Beetle Diversity Associated with Forest Structure including Deadwood in Softwood and Hardwood Stands in Nova Scotia
Kehler, Daniel et al. Proceedings of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science 2004 “Associations between beetles and forest stand characteristics, as well as beetle diversity, were investigated for 41 forest stands in Nova Scotia, Canada. Over 200 morphospecies from 45 Families of beetles were caught using window flight-intercept traps…”

lichens NY Botanical GardenCurious about lichens? See McMullin, T. and Anderson, F. 2014. Common Lichens of Northeastern North America. A Field Guide. New York Botanical Garden.
View An Interview with Dr. Troy McMullin, Author of Common Lichens of Northeastern North America.
Join Nova Scotians’ love affair with lichens and the forests in which they thrive!

Saproxylic beetle (Coleoptera) communities and forest management practices in coniferous stands in southwest Nova Scotia, Canada
Philana E. Dollin, Christopher G. Majka & Peter N. Duinker, ZooKeys 2(2) · September 2008 pp291-336.
Old-growth forest in Nova Scotia typically exhibits an uneven-aged, multi-layered stand structure and contains significant amounts of coarse woody debris. Many forest species, including invertebrates, depend in various ways on deadwood substrates. The objective of this study was to investigate relationships between forest stand age, silvicultural treatment, dead wood, and invertebrate biodiversity, using saproxylic beetles as an indicator group. Saproxylic beetle communities were also compared in the context of other studies in Nova Scotia. Beetles were gathered using four collection techniques: pitfall traps, funnel traps, sweep-netting, and manual searching. Results show that both stand age and harvest treatment had an effect on species richness and species composition. Younger stands had lower species richness and hosted a significantly different suite of species than medium-aged or older ones. Similarly, harvested stands had lower species richness and were host to a significantly different suite of species than unharvested stands. The results from the investigation of stand age are of particular interest. Forest management that disregards the dependence of different suites of beetles on forest stands of various ages and compositions, emphasizing even-aged single-species stands, may be harmful to the species diversity of Nova Scotia’s forest ecosystems

Saproxylic beetle (Coleoptera) communities and forest management practices in coniferous stands in southwest Nova Scotia, Canada. Available from: [accessed Jul 21, 2017].

Resources for Identifying the Plants of Nova Scotia
Comprehensive list of floras, field guides and major online resources to plants, lichens and bryophytes (mosses and the like).

Beetle diversity associated with forest structure including deadwood in softwood and hardwood stands in Nova Scotia
Daniel Kehler, Søren Bondrup-Nielsen* and Cristine Corkum Proceedimgs of the NS Institute of Science 42: 227-239, 2004
ABSTRACT: Associations between beetles and forest stand characteristics, as well as beetle diversity, were investigated for 41 forest stands in Nova Scotia, Canada. Over 200 morphospecies from 45 Familiesof beetles were caught using window flight-intercept traps. In both years, correspondence analysis revealed distinct groupings of softwood and hardwood stands based on species assemblages. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine associations between forest variables and total species richness. Analyses were conducted for all stands combined and for hardwood and softwood stands separately. Hardwood stands had greater beetle richness than softwood stands. Within hardwood stands, volume of intermediate-sized deadwood was the best predictor of total species richness. Within softwood stands, volume of well-decayed deadwood was the best predictor of total beetle richness. Deadwood volume was associated with stand age in softwoods, and it appears that over 140 years is required for deadwood volume to reach pre-disturbance levels.

Putting a Value on the Ecosystem Services provided by Forests in the Eastern United States: Case Studies on Natural Capital and Conservation
The Nature Conservancy, Nov. 2017. USA but the principles apply across the border. The Natural Capital Valuation for a case study site in Lower Penobscot, Maine (in the Northern Appalachian-Acadian Ecoregion which includes Nova Scotia) is $4,200 per acre per year.
Thanks to SBN for passing this one on.

GPI put $ values on our (NS) forests’ Natural Capital in 2001. See The Nova Scotia GPI Forest Accounts Volume 1: Indicators of Ecological, Economic & Social Values of Forests in Nova Scotia (2001 by S Wilson, R Coleman, M O’Brien & L. Pannozzo

Using Calicioid Lichens and Fungi to Assess Ecological Continuity in the Acadian Forest
Youtube video of talk by Dr. Steven Selva – Using Calicioid Lichens and Fungi to Assess Ecological Continuity in the Acadian Forest
Mersey Tobeatic Research Institute Old Forest Conservation Conference at the Debert Hospitality Centre in Debert, Nova Scotia. October 19-21st, 2016

What is an old-growth forest?
Maine DNR. Some useful associated pages: Types of old-growth forests, Importance of old-growth forests, Survival of old-growth forests, Visit an old-growth forest, DNR old-growth forest policy – goals & results, Managing old-growth forests

Old Growth” Forests Defined by Key Ecological Characteristics
Joe Rankin in . dec 20, 2016

The forests of Canada and their distribution with notes on the more interesting species
John Macoun ~1895, 20pp Royal Society of Canada. Historical doc, pespective. Includes a page on NS

Forest conditions of Nova Scotia
Fernow, E. et al., 2012. Conservation Commission, Ottawa. Classic, important historical documentation. Illustrates extent of forest fires.